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Sustainability frameworks and indicators

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The triple bottom line (also noted as TBL or 3BL) is an accounting framework with three parts: social, environmental (or ecological) and financial, which are the same sustainability dimensions that are alluded to in the Brundtland-definition.

The sustainable development goals (SDG) or Global Goals are a collection of 17 interlinked global goals designed to be a «blueprint to achieve a better and more sustainable future for all». Each goal typically has 8–12 targets, and each target has between 1 and 4 indicators used to measure progress toward reaching the targets, giving a large number of potential indicators.

The SDGs are often depicted in the so-called wedding cake model (below) indicating a) which goals are primarily aimed for which sustainability dimension, and b) the priority between the dimensions

Chart, diagram

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The EU Taxonomy  is a classification system establishing a list of environmentally sustainable economic activities. 

 The Taxonomy Regulation establishes six environmental objectives

  1. Climate change mitigation
  2. Climate change adaptation
  3. The sustainable use and protection of water and marine resources
  4. The transition to a circular economy
  5. Pollution prevention and control
  6. The protection and restoration of biodiversity and ecosystems

Climate change measures

Greenhouse Gas Protocol. GHG Protocol establishes comprehensive global standardized frameworks to measure and manage greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from private and public sector operations, value chains and mitigation actions.

GHG Protocol works with governments, industry associations, NGOs, businesses and other organizations.”

CO2 equivalents: The GWP value (Global Warming Potential) of a gas is defined as the cumulative impact on the greenhouse effect of 1 tonne of the gas compared with that of 1 tonne of CO2 over a specified period of time. GWP values are used to convert emissions of greenhouse gases to CO2 equivalents.”

“The Climate Change Performance Index (CCPI) is an independent monitoring tool for tracking countries’ climate protection performance. It aims to enhance transparency in international climate politics and enables comparison of climate protection efforts and progress made by individual countries.”

“The MSCI Climate Change Indexes consider both the opportunities and risks associated with transition to a low carbon economy, enabling institutional investors and wealth managers to integrate climate risk considerations in their global equity investment process. The indexes are designed to exceed the minimum requirements of the EU Climate Transition Benchmark minimum requirements.”


An organization intentionally communicates false or misleading green claims. As a result, it might receive an accusation of greenwashing (external distortion element), which in turn negatively affects its legitimacy and results in reputation damage.


United Nations. https://sdgs.un.org/goals

EU taxonomy for sustainable activities. https://ec.europa.eu/info/business-economy-euro/banking-and-finance/sustainable-finance/eu-taxonomy-sustainable-activities_en.

Greenhouse Gas Protocol. https://ghgprotocol.org/about-us

Statistics Norway. Emission to air. https://www.ssb.no/en/natur-og-miljo/forurensning-og-klima/statistikk/utslipp-til-luft

Burck, Jan; Uhlich, Thea; Bals, Christoph; Höhne, Niklas; Nascimento, Leonardo; Tamblyn, Ana; Reuther, Jonas (November 2021). «Climate Change Performance Index 2022»(PDF). Germanwatch. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2021-11-11. Retrieved 16 November 2021.

MSIC. Climate Change Indexes. https://www.msci.com/climate-change-indexes

Seele, P., & Gatti, L. (2017). Greenwashing revisited: In search of a typology and accusation‐based definition incorporating legitimacy strategies. Business Strategy and the Environment, 26(2), 239-252.

PA113.2.2022John Krogstie, Leif Skiftenes Flak
PA130.3.2022John Krogstie  – Added some examples and explanation of core terms
PA130.4.2022Nevnt tilleggsdef: Green IT/Green ISGreenwashingEcological footprintComplianceForretningsmodeller  : JK, LSF
PA102.05.2022Leif Skiftenes Flak
Beskrevet tilleggsdef: Green IT/Green ISGreenwashingEcological footprintComplianceBusiness models (Forretningsmodeller)  
Lagt til def for:Business models for sustainability (Forretningsmodeller for bærekraftig utvikling)
Climate change measures 
Corporate digital responsibility – CDR 
PA210.10.2022John Krogstie Etter review . Kommentrarer fra reviewere (Trude Hole og Eivind Brevik) tatt inn, men detaljerte approaches tatt videresendt til materiality analysis-dokumentet
PA310.10.2022Basismateriale for web av denne
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