Version PA3

Sustainability means meeting our own needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. (Brundtland, 1987)

Sustainable development (of society): The overall goal of sustainable development (SD) is the long-term stability of the economy and environment; this is only achievable through the integration and acknowledgement of economic, environmental, and social concerns throughout the decision-making process. 

M. Christen points out that sustainable development ‘‘might best be conceptualized as an attempt to grant the right to a decent life to all living human beings without jeopardizing the opportunity to live decently in future.’’

No single product, process, policy, region, or technology can be ‘‘sustainable’’ in the sense of ‘‘sustainable development’’, as the latter concept has a global scope by definition. Thus when we look at smaller scopes than society, we can use the term sustainable use 

Sustainable Use. To make sustainable use of a system S with regard to a function F and a time horizon L means to use S in a way that does not compromise its ability to fulfill F for a period L.

S may also be called a ‘‘resource’’ in the broadest sense of the term, and the process of fulfilling F can also be called a ‘‘service.’’

Substitution is crucial with regard to non-renewable resources, thus we define

Substitutability. If a function F provided by a system S can also be provided by S’, we say that S’ is substitutable for S.  

Substitution is crucial with regard to non-renewable resources. Unless we assume, for example, that fossil energy sources are substitutable by renewables, transition to a sustainable use of energy must appear impossible.

Ecological footprint

ecological footprint (EF), measure of the demands made by a person or group of people on global natural resources. 

The ecological footprint (EF) estimates the biologically productive land and sea area needed to provide the renewable resources that a population consumes and to absorb the wastes it generates—using prevailing technology and resource-management practices—rather than trying to determine how many people a given land area or the entire planet can support. It measures the requirements for productive areas (croplands, grazing lands for animal products, forested areas to produce wood products, marine areas for fisheries, built-up land for housing and infrastructure, and forested land needed to absorb carbon dioxide emissions from energy consumption). One can estimate the EF, measured in “global hectares” (gha), at various scales—for individuals, regions, countries, and humanity as a whole. The resulting figures can also be compared with how much productive area—or biocapacity—is available.”


 The Concept of Sustainable Development: Definition and Defining Principles.

Christen, M.: A theory of the good for a conception of sustainability. In: The Sixteenth Annual International Sustainable Development Research Conference. Conference Proceedings, Hong Kong (2010)

ICT for Sustainability: An Emerging Research Field. http://2015_Hilty_Aebischer ICT for Sustainablity an Emerging Research Field.pdf (

Hayden, A. (2019, December 26). ecological footprint. Encyclopedia Britannica.

Version log

PA113.2.2022John Krogstie, Leif Skiftenes Flak
PA130.3.2022John Krogstie  – Added some examples and explanation of core terms
PA130.4.2022Nevnt tilleggsdef: Green IT/Green ISGreenwashingEcological footprintComplianceForretningsmodeller  : JK, LSF
PA102.05.2022Leif Skiftenes Flak
Beskrevet tilleggsdef: Green IT/Green ISGreenwashingEcological footprintComplianceBusiness models (Forretningsmodeller)  
Lagt til def for:Business models for sustainability (Forretningsmodeller for bærekraftig utvikling)
Climate change measures 
Corporate digital responsibility – CDR 
PA112.05.2022Leif Skiftenes FlakOppdateringer etter møte i arbeidsgruppen.
Tatt ut business modelsForenklet definisjon av GreenwashingFlyttet circular economy til Sustainable business models
PA 115.5.2022John Krogstie Restrukturert dokument 
PA210.10.2022John Krogstie Etter review . Kommentrarer fra reviewere (Trude Hole og Eivind Brevik) tatt inn, men detaljerte approaches tatt videresendt til materiality analysis-dokumentet
PA310.10.2022John Krogstie Basismateriale for web av denne
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