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Sustainable Digitalization


The following definitions are based on Danielsen, F., Flak, LS and Sæbø. Ø.  Understanding Digital Transformation in Government Chapter 7 in…, Springer


“Digitizing and digitization is the process of converting information from the analog to the digital”


“Digitalization is a socio-technical process aiming to convert and modify organizational processes into a digital(ly enhanced) form”

Digital transformation

“Digital transformation is significant changes in organizational or societal, service logics, structures, and values enabled by digital technologies”

Green IT and Green IS

  • “First-order effects of IT are direct impacts from IT hardware and softwareduring the product lifecycle, including production, use and disposal of computer equipment. These effects are treated in  the scope of Green IT.”
  • “Second-order effects are the effects of ICTs on other processes such as transportation or industrial production, influencing their environmental impacts. This is similar to Green IS.”
  • “Third-order effects are longer term and more dynamic. They occur when widespread use of ICTs leads to changes in lifestyles and economic structures. Third-order effects may be seen in specific cases, such as telecommuting or the growth of home-based businesses built on e-commerce platforms such as eBay or Amazon.”

The different order of effects are also open termed levels of impact (immediate, enabling, structural (or systemic).


Compliance – “the act of obeying an order, rule, or request.” 

“If Green IS are being employed by organizations to address problems of compliance with regulative, normative, and cultural-cognitive obligations and social responsibilities caused by complex and equivocal information from the institutional environment, then such IS will need to support sense-making, decision making and knowledge creation in order to achieve environmental sustainability objectives.”

Corporate Digital Responsibility – CDR

“We define CDR as the set of shared values and norms guiding an organization’s operations with respect to four main processes related to digital technology and data. These processes are the creation of technology and data capture, operation and decision making, inspection and impact assessment, and refinement of technology and data.”


Danielsen, F., Flak, LS and Sæbø. Ø.  Understanding Digital Transformation in Government Chapter 7 in…, Springer

Dedrick, J. (2010). Green IS: concepts and issues for information systems research. Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 27(1), 11.

Cambridge Dictionary – https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/compliance

Butler, T. (2011). Compliance with institutional imperatives on environmental sustainability: Building theory on the role of Green IS. The Journal of Strategic Information Systems, 20(1), 6-26.

Lobschat, L., Mueller, B., Eggers, F., Brandimarte, L., Diefenbach, S., Kroschke, M., & Wirtz, J. (2021). Corporate digital responsibility. Journal of Business Research, 122, 875-888.

Version log

PA113.2.2022John Krogstie, Leif Skiftenes Flak
PA130.3.2022John Krogstie  – Added some examples and explanation of core terms
PA130.4.2022Nevnt tilleggsdef: Green IT/Green ISGreenwashingEcological footprintComplianceForretningsmodeller  : JK, LSF
PA102.05.2022Leif Skiftenes Flak
Beskrevet tilleggsdef: Green IT/Green ISGreenwashingEcological footprintComplianceBusiness models (Forretningsmodeller)  
Lagt til def for:Business models for sustainability (Forretningsmodeller for bærekraftig utvikling)
Climate change measures 
Corporate digital responsibility – CDR 
PA112.05.2022Leif Skiftenes Flak Oppdateringer etter møte i arbeidsgruppen.
Tatt ut business modelsForenklet definisjon av GreenwashingFlyttet circular economy til Sustainable business models
PA 115.5.2022John Krogstie Restrukturert dokument 
PA210.10.2022John Krogstie – Etter review . Kommentrarer fra reviewere (Trude Hole og Eivind Brevik) tatt inn, men detaljerte approaches tatt videresendt til materiality analysis-dokumentet
PA310.10.2022John Krogstie – Basismateriale for web av denne
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